Advanced Error Handling Strategies In Cypress Tests

Cypress is a cutting-edge web-based automated front-end testing tool. It simplifies web application test setup, creation, execution, and bug fixing. Many test automation frameworks run outside the browser and send commands over the network. However, Cypress runs in the browser.  This method simulates real internet use better than automated testing tools and lets you interact with web elements faster, more reliably, and more accurately.

Testing frameworks like Cypress need good error handling for many reasons. First, it ensures tests accurately reflect the application’s state, giving developers reliable feedback.  Good error handling speeds up failure diagnosis and debugging. Mishandling errors can cause tests to fail, lowering application and suite confidence.

This blog post compares Cypress’s benefits to other testing frameworks. 

What is Error Handling in Cypress?

Writing dependable tests requires an understanding of Cypress’s error-handling capabilities. Cypress’s special handling of test execution errors guarantees accurate and educational tests. This article provides a detailed examination of Cypress’s error-handling fundamentals, covering synchronous and asynchronous errors, typical errors, and default mechanisms.

Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Errors

Let us take a look at the differences between Synchronous and Asynchronous errors – 

  • Synchronous Errors: These occur immediately as the code executes. Cypress generates synchronous errors when commands that do not require asynchronous operations, like checking a variable or doing simple calculations, are executed.
  • Asynchronous Errors: These are more common in Cypress tests due to the nature of web applications. Asynchronous errors occur when API calls, page loads, or Cypress command DOM operations require waiting. Asynchronous errors affect test reliability, so handling them is crucial.

Common Types of Errors in Cypress Tests

Some of the common types of errors in cypress tests are – 

  • Assertion Errors: Occur when an expectation about the application state is unmet. For example, you might expect a specific text to be on the page, but it’s not.
  • Timeout Errors: This happens when Cypress commands or assertions exceed their default or custom-set timeout periods. Elements may need to be visible, exist, or meet a time requirement.
  • Network Errors: Arise from failed network requests. Cypress can intercept and monitor these, allowing tests to assert their behavior or status.

Cypress’s Default Error Handling Mechanisms

Cypress has several built-in mechanisms to handle errors gracefully:

  • Automatic Retries: Cypress automatically retries assertions until they pass or a timeout is reached. This feature handles asynchronous web applications, where elements may not be visible immediately.
  • Timeouts and Their Customization: Cypress provides default timeouts for various operations but allows customization at both global and command-specific levels. Adjusting timeouts can reduce errors, especially during longer wait times.
  • .catch() for Promise Rejections: While Cypress commands are not promises, they can be chained and managed in a way that resembles promise-based handling. Use.catch() to catch and handle promise rejections in operations that return promises, such as cy.request(). This is useful for handling network errors or failed asynchronous operations.

Advanced Error Handling Strategies 

Software developers must handle errors to predict application behavior when problems occur. Complex error-handling strategies anticipate issues, provide feedback to developers and users, and integrate with faster diagnosis and fix tools. 

Enhancing readability and debugging with custom messages.

Custom assertion error messages enhance test code readability and debugging. If a test fails, a generic error message may not explain why an assertion was important. With custom messages, developers can quickly understand assertion intent and condition failure.

Code examples demonstrating how to add custom messages.

Consider a simple array-emptiness assertion. An error message like “expected [1,2,3] to be empty” is not helpful without a custom message. By adding a custom message, the error can be made much clearer:

Implementing .then(), .each(), and custom commands for complex conditions.

Cypress’s conditional testing commands make tests more flexible and robust. The .then() command retrieves the result of a previous command,.each() iterates over array elements, and custom commands can encapsulate complex logic for reuse across tests.

Strategies To Avoid False Positives/Negatives 

Specify your conditions and use Cypress’s waiting and retrying to avoid false positives and negatives. Arbitrary timeouts can cause test flaws. Cypress will wait for the right circumstances.

Intercepting and manipulating HTTP requests and responses.

Cypress lets you intercept and manipulate HTTP requests and responses to test your application under different network conditions or backend responses.

Strategies for dealing with network errors and testing offline behavior.

To test network errors or offline behavior, you can use cy.intercept() to simulate these conditions. You can fail a network call or return a custom response. This lets you test that your app gracefully handles errors and gives users appropriate feedback.

Overview of tools like Sentry, LogRocket.

Developers use Sentry and LogRocket to track and analyze real-time errors. They reveal how, when, and why errors occur, helping diagnose and fix issues faster.

Setting up Cypress to report errors to these tools for deeper analysis.

Cypress must be configured to capture errors or test failures and send them to Sentry, LogRocket, or another error reporting service. Custom Cypress commands or lifecycle event hooks can capture and report errors.

Advanced error-handling strategies help developers build more resilient and maintainable apps. Custom error messages simplify debugging; Cypress commands offer powerful conditional testing, handle network requests, and responses, expand scenarios, and integrate with error reporting tools, leading to faster fixes and better application quality.

Implementing Advanced Error Handling in Real-World Scenarios 

Advanced error handling requires a resilient system to handle unexpected events. This is necessary for automated testing because dynamic data, external dependencies, and complex flows can cause flaky tests or hard-to-diagnose failures. Three real-world case studies show how advanced error-handling strategies can help.

Case Study 1: Handling flaky tests with dynamic data.

Scenario Overview

Dynamic data-based tests often cause flaky automated tests. These tests may pass and fail without code changes, causing test suite confidence to drop.

Solution Strategy

To handle flaky tests caused by dynamic data, the team implemented several advanced error-handling strategies:

  • Test Data Management Tools: The team created, managed, and destroyed predictable test data for each test run. Thus, tests started with the same conditions every time.
  • Dynamic data mocking: The team mocked and stubbed dynamic data sources for tests. They controlled test data from external services.
  • Implementing Retry Logic: The team added retry logic for timing-sensitive or intermittent assertions. Tests could repeat the assertion before failing.


By implementing these strategies, the team significantly reduced the occurrence of flaky tests. The test suite became more reliable, and developers gained confidence in the test results.

Case Study 2: Managing test failures due to external API rate limits.

Scenario Overview

An external API’s rate limits caused frequent test failures for a team. The testing environment could not handle the external service’s constraints, not application bugs.

Solution Strategy

To manage test failures caused by external API rate limits, the team adopted the following approaches:

  • API Mocking: Most tests used mocked responses instead of the real API.  This reduced real API calls and avoided the rate limit.
  • Rate Limit Handling Logic: The team implemented logic for API tests to handle rate limit errors gracefully. This included exponential back-off or retrying the request after a delay.
  • External API Monitoring: The team monitored the external API’s usage, allowing them to track how close they were to hitting the rate limit. This enabled proactive adjustments to their testing strategy.


The team avoided API rate limit test failures with these strategies. Developers could focus on issues rather than external constraints as tests became more reliable.

Best Practices for Error Handling in Cypress 

Cypress error handling ensures test automation reliability, maintainability, and meaningful feedback.  Good error handling can improve your test suite’s quality and effectiveness. 

Here are some key strategies to consider:

1. Use Clear, Descriptive Test Titles and Assertions

  • Description: Each test case title should describe what the test verifies. This practice helps quickly determine the test’s purpose and consequences of failure.
  • Assert with Clarity: Use assertions that clearly state the expected outcome. Cypress’s rich assertion library lets you write expressive application requirement tests.

2. Implement Custom Error Messages

  • Custom Assertions: Take advantage of Cypress’s ability to include custom messages in assertions. This helps diagnose issues when a test fails by providing context.

3. Handle Dynamic Content Gracefully

  • Dynamic data: Use Cypress commands like.wait(),.retry(), and conditional testing to handle application state and response time variability when testing dynamic content.
  • Use Aliases: Utilize Cypress aliases to reference elements or responses, reducing repetition and making your tests more readable and maintainable.

4. Utilize Cypress Commands and Utilities

  • Custom Commands: Create custom Cypress commands for repetitive tasks or complex interactions. This reduces code duplication and encapsulates actions, making your tests easier to read and maintain.
  • Network Requests: Leverage Cypress’s ability to stub and intercept network requests. This helps control and simulate network conditions and responses for more reliable tests.

5. Debugging and Diagnostics

  • Use .debug() and DevTools: Cypress’s .debug() command can be inserted into your test chain to pause execution and inspect the current state. Combined with browser DevTools, this can be a powerful way to diagnose issues.
  • Log Output: Cypress automatically logs commands and assertions, but you can add custom logs using cy.log() for additional insights during test execution.

6. Continuous Integration and Cypress Dashboard

  • CI Integration: Integrate Cypress with your CI/CD pipeline to run tests automatically on code changes. This detects errors early and keeps your app deployable.
  • Cypress Dashboard: Watch your test suite run with video and logs. This aids in debugging and test failure analysis.

7. Regular Maintenance and Review

  • Update Tests with Application Changes: Review and update your test suite regularly during application changes to keep your tests relevant and useful.
  • Refactor and Optimize: Regularly test to improve readability, performance, and reliability. Optimize selectors, reduce redundancy, and improve test structure.

Cloud-based testing platforms facilitate various testing scenarios, from automated and manual testing to cross-browser and cross-device compatibility checks. They ensure that applications deliver a consistent, high-quality user experience across all user touchpoints. 

One such well-known cloud-based platform is LambdaTest. 

LambdaTest is an AI-powered test orchestration and execution platform that supports more than 3000 browser and OS combinations. It enables seamless cross-browser and web device testing, ensuring that your application works flawlessly for every user, regardless of their choice of technology.

LambdaTest stands out for its extensive testing capabilities, user-friendly interface, and robust integration options. It easily integrates with popular project management, bug tracking, and CI/CD tools, streamlining the testing process and enhancing team collaboration. 

Whether you’re looking to automate your testing workflow, perform live interactive testing, or leverage visual regression testing, LambdaTest provides the tools and infrastructure to achieve your goals efficiently.

This platform plays a pivotal role in this ecosystem, offering the agility and efficiency required to meet the high standards of today’s digital landscape. By leveraging such platforms, teams can ensure their products are functional and deliver a superior user experience across all platforms and devices.


Cypress testing has allowed us to try advanced error-handling strategies. Clear and descriptive test cases make each test’s purpose and expectations clear, speeding up diagnostics when things go wrong. Custom error messages and strategic Cypress debugging help you find and fix issues faster. Your test suite needs regular maintenance and updates to stay relevant and effective as your application changes.

Testing scenarios can better simulate real-world user interactions with Cypress’s dynamic content and network request handling. Custom commands and the Cypress Dashboard in CI/CD pipelines simplify testing and reveal application health and reliability.

As software complexity and development speed up, sophisticated error handling and automated testing become more important. Adding these advanced strategies to your testing workflow will help you find and fix issues faster and ensure your software products meet high quality and reliability standards.

Leave a Comment